Several political scientists, sociologists, and psychologists use two cognitive models (which I call Nurturant and Authoritative) to explain the polarization in American on social and political issues. The models are identified by the responses to the four questions about preferences in children.
Nurturants prefer Independence, Curiosity, Being Considerate, and Self-Reliance. Authoritatives prefer Respect for Elders, Good Manners, Well Behaved, and Obedience. The models embody very different core values. Nurturants prioritize empathy, cooperation, perspective taking, the importance of community, and the need for nuance. Authoritatives prioritize obedience to rules, maintaining social order, individual responsibility, and cognitive closure (certainty).
My book, Embracing Prodigals, uses the Nurturant and Authoritative modes to explore the polarization in American Christianity regarding doctrinal and social issues. I explain how these different values motivate people to hold very different views on topics such as hell, God, atonement, and the nature of the Bible. In addition, it is fascinating how the views one holds on doctrines such as hell correspond to the views people affirm on criminal justice.