This bibliography is arranged in five categories: (1) multi-views works, (2) works supporting open theism, (3) works engaging open theism, (4) works against open theism, and (5) doctoral dissertations and masters theses engaging open theism. Updated October 2022.

For Overviews and summaries of open theism see:

  • William Hasker and John Sanders, “Open Theism: Progress and Prospects.” Theologische Literaturzeitung 142/9 (2017)” 859-872.
  • John Sanders, “Open Theism.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online, 2013.
  • ——-“An Introduction to Open Theism,” Reformed Review, Vol. 60, no. 2 (Spring 2007).
  • Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
  • Italian: Migliorni, Damiano.“Il Dio che rischia e che “cambia”: introduzione all’Open Theism.” New Journal of Philosophy of Religion number 8 (September-October 2018).

See also:

  • The bibliography compiled by Thomas Oord on this website.
  • The “History of Open Theism” on this website.
  • Taylor, Justin. “A Bibliography on Open Theism.” Eds with John Piper, Beyond the Bounds: Open Theism and the Undermining of Biblical Christianity. Chicago: Crossway, 2003: 385-400.
  • Swanson, Dennis M “Bibliography of works on open theism”.  Master’s Seminary Journal, 12 no 2 Fall 2001, p 223-229.

1. Multi-views books:

  • Perspectives on the Doctrine of God: 4 Views, edited by Bruce Ware (Broadman & Holman, 2008), includes a defense of open theism by Sanders, a defense of the traditional Arminian view by Roger Olson, a “classical Calvinist perspective” by Paul Helm and a “modified Calvinist perspective” by Bruce Ware.
  • Divine Foreknowledge: Four Views James Beilby and Paul Eddy (IVP, 2001). Contains Boyd on the open view, David Hunt for a modified simple foreknowledge view, William Lane Craig for middle knowledge, and Paul Helm for theological determinism.
  • God and Time: Four Views Gregory Ganssle (IVP, 2001). Wolterstorff defends a temporal conception of God, Helm the atemporal view, while Padgett and Craig affirm divine temporality since creation.
  • Predestination and Free Will: Four Views, ed. David Basinger and Randall Basinger (IVP, 1986) contains Pinnock on open theism.

2. Works supporting open theism:

Archer, Kenneth.

  • “Open Theism View: Prayer Changes Things.” The Pneuma Review 5.2 (Spring 2002): 32-53.
  • “How Much Does God Control? Open View Response to the Arminian View,” The Pneuma Review 1/1(Winter 2004): 60-64;

Baker, Vaughn. Evangelism and the Openness of God: The Implications of Relational Theism for Evangelism and Missions (Pickwick, 2013).

Barholomew, D. J.

  • God of Chance (London: SCM, 1984), chap. 7
  • God, Chance, and Purpose: Can God have it Both Ways? (Cambridge University press, 2008), final chapter analyses divine risk.

Basinger, David.

  • The Case for Freewill Theism: A Philosophical Assessment. Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 1996.
  • ‘Can an Evangelical Christian Justifiably Deny God’s Exhaustive Knowledge of the Future?’ Christian Scholar’s Review 25/2 (1995): 135-145.
  • ‘Divine Control and Human Freedom: Is Middle Knowledge the Answer?’ Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36/1 (1993): 55-64.
  • ‘Divine Omniscience and the Soteriological Problem of Evil: Is the Type of Knowledge God Possesses Relevant?’ Religious Studies 18/1 (1992): 1-18.

Biederwolf, William Edward, How Can God Answer Prayer? Winona Pub. 1906.

Borgman, Paul. Genesis: The Story We Haven’t Heard. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2001.

Boyd, Gregory.

  • God of the Possible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2000.
  • Two ancient (and modern) motivations for ascribing exhaustively definite foreknowledge to God: a historic overview and critical assessment.” Religious Studies 46 no 1 Mr 2010, p 41-59.
  • Satan and the Problem of Evil: Constructing a Trinitarian Warfare Theodicy. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2001.
  • God At War: The Bible and Spiritual Conflict. Downers Grove: IVP, 1997.
  • Is God to Blame? IVP 2003
  • Trinity and Process: A Critical Evaluation and Reconstruction of     Hartshorne’s Di-Polar Theism Towards a Trinitarian Metaphysics. American University Studies Series VII, Theology and Religion vol. 19. New York: Peter Lang, 1992.
  • (2001) “The Open-Theist View.” James Beilby and Paul Eddy eds. Divine Foreknowledge: Four Views. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.

Boyd, with Alan Rhoda,and Thomas Belt “Open Theism, Omniscience, and the Nature of the Future” Faith and Philosophy, 23(4), 432-459, October 2006.

Brents, T. W. The Gospel Plan of Salvation. 12th Edition. Nashville: Gospel Advocate, 1928 [1st Edition, 1874].

Brümmer, Vincent.

  • Speaking of a Personal God: An Essay in Philosophical Theology. Cambridge: University Press, 1992.
  • What Are We Doing When We Pray? A Philosophical Investigation. Revised edition, Ashgate, 2008.

Callen, Barry. Discerning the Divine :God in Christian Theology, (Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2004

Carlson, Reed. The open God of the Sodom and Gomorrah cycle.e: Journal of Pentecostal Theology, 21 no 2 2012, p 185-200.

Carasik, Michael. “The Limits of Omniscience.” Journal of Biblical Literature 119.2 (summer 2000): 221-232

Carson, Jordon. “The Suffering God and the Cross in Open Theism: Theodicy or Atonement? Perspectives in Religious Studies v. 37 n. 3 (Fall 2010): 323-337.

Clayton, Philip. “Kenotic Trinitarian Panentheism,” Dialogue, 44/3 (2005).

Cobb, John B. Jr., and Clark H. Pinnock, eds., Searching for an Adequate God: A Dialogue Between Process and Free Will Theists,  William B. Eerdmans, 2000

Coburn, John. Freewill, Predestination and Determinism. Marquette University Press,       2007, 124-142.

  1. Cudby,
  • Openness Theology – A New Evangelical Approach to the Epicurean Paradox, Modern Believing, Vol. 43.2, April 2005, p. 13-21.
  • Openness theology Part two: Dealing with the shortcomings. Modern Believing, 46 no 3 Jul 2005, p 15-23.

Culp, John. “From Criticism to Mutual Transformation? The Dialogue Between Process and Evangelical Theologies.” Process Studies, pp. 132-146, Vol. 30, Number 1, Spring-Summer, 2001

Davenport, John. “A New Existential Model of God: A Synthesis of Themes from Kierkegaard, Buber, Levinas, and Open Theism,” in J. Diller and A. Kasher (eds.) Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities (Springer, 2013).

Dorner, Isaac. Divine Immutability: A Critical Reconsideration, Robert Williams and Claude Welch trans. (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1994), pp. 149-153

Ellis, Rober.  Answering God: Towards A Theology of Intercession. Paternoster, 2005

Elseth, H. Roy. Did God Know? A Study of the Nature of God. St Paul: Calvary United Church, 1977.

Ellington, Scott. “Who Shall Lead them Out? An Exploration of God’s Openness in Exodus 32:7-14.” Journal of Pentecostal Theology, 14/1 (2005): 41-60.

Ferre, Nels. The Christian Understanding of God (NY: Harper, 1951).

Fiddes, Paul S.

  • The Creative Suffering of God. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.
  • The Promised End: Eschatology in Theology and Literature. Wiley Blackwell, 2000.

Fisher, Christopher. God is Open: Examining the Open Theism of the Biblical Authors (Create Space, 2017).

Fretheim, Terence.

  • Creation Untamed: The Bible, God, and Natural Disasters (Baker, 2010).
  • God and World in the Old Testament: A Relational Theology of Creation. Abingdon, 2005
  • The Book of Genesis. The New Interpreter’s Bible. Nashville,TN: Abingdon, 1994.
  • “Creator, Creature, and Co-Creation in Genesis 1-2.” Word and World. Supplement 1 (1992): 11-20.
  • “Divine Foreknowledge, Divine Constancy, and the Rejection of Saul’s Kingship.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly. 47, no. 4 (Oct. 1985): 595-602.
  • Exodus. Interpretation. Louisville: John Knox, 1991.
  • God and Violence in the Old Testament,” Word & World 24/1 (Winter 2004): 18-28.
  • “Prayer in the Old Testament: Creating Space in the World for God.” Ed. Paul Sponheim. A Primer on Prayer. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.
  • “The Repentance of God: A Key to Evaluating Old Testament God-Talk.” Horizons in Biblical Theology 10, no. 1 (June 1988): 47-70.
  • “The Repentance of God: A Study of Jeremiah 18:7-10. Hebrew Annual Review 11 (1987): 81-92.
  • “Suffering God and Sovereign God in Exodus: A Collision of Images.” Horizons in Biblical Theology 11 no. 2 (Dec. 1989): 31-56.
  • The Suffering of God: An Old Testament Perspective. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.
  • First and Second Kings, Westminster John Knox, 1999.

Geach, Peter. Providence and Evil, Cam­bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977

Goetz, James.

  • Conditional Futurism: New Perspective of End-Time Prophecy. Wifp n Stock 2012. Argues that all biblical covenants and predictive prophecies conditional. Does not discuss open theism but is compatible with openness.
  • “Semiclassical Theism and the Passage of Planck Times” Theology and Science August 22, 2016, (available online).

Goldingay, John. Old Testament Theology, vol. 1 (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2003)

Gordon, Liran. “’All is Foreseen, and freedom of choice is granted:’ A Scotistic Examination of God’s freedom, divine foreknowledge and the arbitrary use of power. Heythrop Journal (November 22, 2017).

Gould, James B. “Bonhoeffer and Open Theism.” Philosophy and Theology: Marquette University Quarterly, 15/ 1, pp. 57-91, 2003

Gregersen, Niels Henrik.

  • “Faith in a World of Risks: A Trinitarian Theology of Risk- Taking.” Eds. Else Pedersen, Lam Holger and Peter Lodberg, For all People: Global Theologies in Context: Essays in honor of Viggo Morterson (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2002): 214-233.
  • “Risk and Religion: Toward a Theology of Risk Taking.” Zygon 38/2 (June 2003): 355-376.

Grössl, Johannes. Die Freiheit des Menschen als Risiko Gottes: Der Offene Theismus als Konzeption der Vereinbarkeit von göttlicher Allwissenheit und menschlicher Freiheit“ Studien in Theologie, Ethik und Philosophie, hrsg. (Münster: Aschendorff 2015).

Grössl, Johannes and Leigh Vicens. “Closing the Door on Limited Risk Open Theism. Faith & Philosophy, 31. (December 10, 2014): 475-485.

Harvey, Sharron. Open Theism and Environmental Responsibilities: A Promotion of Environmental Ethics. (Original publication 2007) AV Akademikerverlag, 2012.

Hasker, William.

  • “Et Tu, Zimmerman? Is Foreknowledge Useful After All?” TheoLogica An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology Published Online First: June 13, 2022 DOI:
  • An Open Theist Theodicy of Natural Evil in Molinism: the contemporary debate, ed. Ken Perszyk (Oxford University Press, 2011).
  • Providence, Evil, and the Openness of God, London: Routledge,  2004.
  • God, Time, and Knowledge, Cornell Studies in the Philosophy of Religion. Cornell University Press, 1989.
  • The Openness of God:  A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God, with Clark Pinnock, Richard Rice, John Sanders, and David Basinger, Downers Grove, Ill.:  InterVarsity Press, 1994.
  • “Is Free-Will Theism Religiously Inadequate?  A Reply to Ciocchi,” Religious Studies.
  • “The Antinomies of Divine Providence,” Philosophia Christi, 4:2 (2002), pp. 361-75.
  • “Counterfactuals and Evil: A Reply to Geivett,” Philosophia Christi.
  • “The God Who Takes Risks,” in Michael Peterson, ed., Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion, Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.
  • “Response to Helm,” in Michael Peterson, ed., Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.
  • “The End of Human Life: Buddhist, Process, and Open Theist Perspectives.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy  32:2 (June 2005).
  • “The Problem of Evil in Process Theism and Classical Free Will Theism,” Process Studies 29:2 (Fall/Winter 2000), pp. 194-208.
  • “The Foreknowledge Condundrum.” International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 50, Numbers 1-3 ( December 2001 ):  97 – 114
  • “Bitten to Death by Ducks’: A Reply to Griffin,” Process Studies 29:2 (Fall/Winter 2000), pp. 227-32.
  • “An Adequate God,” in John B. Cobb, Jr., and Clark H. Pinnock, eds., Searching for an Adequate God: A Dialogue Between Process and Free Will Theists, Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 2000, pp. 215-45
  • “In Response to David Ray Griffin,” in Searching for an Adequate God, pp. 39-52.
  • “The Openness of God,” Christian Scholar’s Review 28:1 (Fall 1998), pp. 111-23.
  • “Tradition, Divine Transcendence, and the Waiting Father,” Christian Scholar’s Review 28:1 (Fall 1998), pp. 134-39.
  • “Providence and Evil:  Three Theories,” Religious Studies 28 (1992), pp. 91-105.
  • The Triumph of God Over Evil: Theodicy for a World of Suffering. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2008.
  • “Why Simple Foreknowledge is Still Useless,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 52/3 (September, 2009): 537-544.

Hasker, William and John Sanders, “Open Theism: Progress and Prospects.”  Theologische Literaturzeitung 142/9 (2017)” 859-872.

Hasker, William, Thomas Oord, and Dean Zimmerman eds. God in an Open Universe: Science, Metaphysics, and Open Theism (Pickwick, 2011). A collection of essays by leading open theist philosophers and theologians.

Hayes, Joel S. The Foreknowledge of God; Or, The Omniscience of God Consistent with His Own Holiness and Man’s Free Agency. Nashville: Publishing House of the M[ethodist] E[piscopal] Church, South, 1890.

Hempelmann, Heinzpeter.  [develops a model similar to open theism but does not want to be identified as an open theist.]

  • Wir haben den Horizont weggewischt Die Herausforderung: Postmoderner Wahrheitspluralismus und christliches Wahrheitszeugnis (Wuppertal 2008). [Uses postmodernism to develop an openness model]
  • Unaufhebbare Subjektivität Gottes. Probleme einer Lehre vom concursus divinus, dargestellt anhand von Karl Barths “Kirchlicher Dogmatik”, (Wuppertal 1992).

Hess, Elijah.

  • “The Neo-Molinist Square Stands Firm: A Rejoinder to Kirk MacGregor,” Philosophia Christi 21 (2019): 391-406
  • “The Open Future Square of Opposition,” Sophia (2017).
  • “Arguing from Molinism to Neo-Molinism.” Philosophia Christi, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2015: 331-351. [see article by MacGregor criticizing Hess]

Holtzen, Curtis. The God Who Trusts: A Relational Theology of Divine Faith, Hope, and Love. InterVarsity Press, 2019.

Kapitan, Tomis.

  • ‘Acting and the Open Future: A Brief Reply to David Hunt.’ Religious Studies 33/3 (1997): 287-292.
  • ‘Agency and Omniscience.’ Religious Studies 27/1 (1991): 105-120.

Kindelberger, Roy. God’s Absence and the Charismatic Presence: Inquiries in Openness Theology. Resource Publications, 2017.

Kirkpatrick, Frank. Together Bound (Oxford, 1994).

Knight, Gordon. “Universalism for Open Theists.” Religious Studies: An International Journal for the Philosophy of Religion, 42(2), 213-223. 11 p. June 2006

Krump, David. Knocking on Heaven’s Door: A New Testament Theology of Petionary Prayer (Eerdmans, 2006)

Launonen Lari, and R. T. Mullins. “Why Open Theism Is Natural and Classical Theism Is Not.” Religions 202112(11),

Lodahl, Michael E. The (brief) openness debate in Islamic theology: and why that debate should be different among contemporary Christians. Creation made freeopen theology engaging science, Eugene, Or : Pickwick, 2009, 53-68.

Lucas, J. R.

  • The Freedom of the Will. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
  • The Future: An Essay on God, Temporality, and Truth. Blackwell, 1989.

McCabe, Lorenzo Dow.

  • ‘Does God’s Foreknowledge Embrace All Future Futuritions?’ Western Christian Advocate [Cincinnati], 23 May 1894: (Photocopy in Personal Library Collection of Gordon C. Olson.)
  • ‘Prescience of Future Contingencies Impossible.’ Methodist Review (September 1892): 760-773.
  • Divine Nescience of Future Contingencies a Necessity, Being an Introduction to ‘The Foreknowledge of God and Cognate Themes’. New York: Phillips and Hunt, 1882.
  • The Foreknowledge of God and Cognate Themes in Theology and Philosophy. Cincinnati: Cranston and Stowe, 1887 [original copyright 1878].

Moberly, R. W. L. “God is Not a Human That He Should Reptent: Numbers 23:19 and 1 Samuel 15:29,” in eds. Tod Linafelt and Timothy F. Beal, God in the Fray: A Tribute to Walter Brueggemann (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998), pp. 112-123.

Mullins, R. T. “Divine Temporality and Providential Bodgery,” TheoLogica An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology October 09, 2020

  • God and Emotion. Cambridge University Press, 2020.
  • “Why Can’t the Impassible God Suffer? Analytic Reflections on Divine Blessedness.” TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 2 (1):3-22 (2018)
  • The End of the Timeless God. Oxford University Press, 2016.

Mullins, R. T. and Lari Launonen. “Why Open Theism Is Natural and Classical Theism Is Not.” Religions 202112(11), 956;

Mullins, R. T. and Emanuela Sani, “Open Theism and Risk Management: A Philosophical and Biological Perspective. Zygon vol. 56, no. 3 (September 2021) 591-613.

Nichols, Jason. “Openness and Inerrancy: Can They be Compatible?” JETS 45/4 (Dec. 2002) 629-649.

O’Connor,Timothy O’Connor, Theism and Ultimate Explanation: The Necessary Shape of Contingency (London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012) Timothy. Theism and Ultimate Explanation: The Necessary Shape of Contingency (London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012)Timothy O’Connor, Theism and Ultimate Explanation: The Necessary Shape of Contingency (London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012)

Olson, Gordon. The Foreknowledge of God and The Omniscience of the Godhead  (Arlington Heights, IL: The Bible Research Corporation

Oord, Thomas Jay.

  • 2018. Miracles, Theodicy, and Essential Kenosis: A Response to John Sanders. Wesleyan Theological Journal 53 (2): 194-215.
  • The Uncontrolling Love of God: An Open and Relational Account of Providence (IVP, 20105).
  • “The Divergence of Evangelical and Process Theologies: Is the        Impasse Insurmountable?” ARC: Journal for the McGill Faculty of Religious Studies, 51, 2003: 99-120.
  • The Nature of Love: A Theology (Chalice, 2010)
  • The divine spirit as causal and personal. Zygon, 48 no 2 Jun 2013, p 466-477.

Oord, Thomas Jay editor, Creation Made Free: Open Theology Engaging Science (Pickwick, 2009). A collection of essays by leading open theist theologians.

Paulsen, David. “The God of Abraham, Isaac and (William) James.” The Journal of Speculative Philosophy 13.2 (1999) 114-146

Pinnock, Clark

  • See the bibliography of Pinnock’s works in Barry Callen, Journey Toward Renewal (Evangel, 2000).
  • “Constrained by love: divine self-restraint according to open theism.” Perspectives in Religious Studies, 34 no 2 Sum 2007, p 149-160.
  • Open theism: an answer to my critics. Dialog, 44 no 3 Fall 2005, p 237-245.
  • ‘Open Theism: “What is this? A new teaching? – and with authority! (Mk 1:27).’ University of Calgary, 03  February 2003.
  • ‘There Is Room for Us: A Reply to Bruce Ware.’ Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45/2 (June 2002): 213-219.
  • Most Moved Mover: A Theology of God’s Openness. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001.
  • ‘Divine Relationality: A Pentecostal Contribution to the Doctrine of God’ Journal of Pentecostal Theology 16 (2000):3-26.
  • ‘Between Classical and Process Theism.’ In Process Theology, ed by Ronald [H.] Nash (309-327). Grand Rapids, Baker, 1987.
  • A response to ‘from bad to worse’. Criswell Theological Review, ns 1 no 2 Spr 2004, p 167-170.
  • The beauty of God: John Wesley’s reform and its aftermath. Wesleyan Theological Journal, 38 no 2 Fall 2003, p 57-68.
  • A Rejoinder. Mormonism in dialogue with contemporary Christian theologies, Macon, Ga : Mercer Univ Pr, 2007 p542-545.

Pinnock, Clark H. and Cobb, John B. Jr., eds., Searching for an Adequate God: A              Dialogue Between Process and Free Will Theists,  William B. Eerdmans, 2000

Pinnock, Clark and David Paulsen, “Open and Relational Theology: An Evangelical Dialogue with a Latter-day Saint.” BYU Studies 48, no. 2 (2009): 50-110.

Polkinghorne, John.

  • Edited and has chapter in The Work of Love: Creation as Kenosis. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001.
  • Science and Creation (Boston: Shambala, 1988)
  • Science and the Trinity: The Christian Encounter with Realilty (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004

Pratney, Winkey. The Nature and Character of God (Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1998

Prior A. N. “The Formalities of Omniscience,” Philosophy 32 (1962), pp. 119-29

Purtill, Richard

  • “Foreknowledge and Fatalism” Religious Studies 10 (1974): 319.
  • “Fatalism and the Omnitemporality of Truth,” Faith and Philosophy 5 (1988), pp. 185-192

Putt, Keith. “Risking Love and the Divine ‘Perhaps’: Postmodern Poetics of a Vulnerable God.” Perspectives in Religious Studies 34.2 (2007): 193-214. (compares and contrasts Caputo, Kearney, and open theism).

Randall, Rory. An Open Theist Renewal Theology: God’s Love, the Spirits Power, and Human Freedom. SacraSage Press, 2021.

Rice, Richard.

  • The Future of Open Theism: From Antecedents to Opportunities. IVP 2020.
  • The Openness of God: The Relationship of Divine Foreknowledge and Human Free Will. Nashville: Review and Herald Publishing Assoc, 1980.
  • “Does Open Theism Limit God?” Wesleyan Theological Journal 48, no.2 (Fall 2013): 30-43.
  • Suffering and the Search for Meaning (IVP 2014)
  • Creatio ex nihilo: it’s not all about nothing. Wesleyan Theological Journal, 47 no 2 Fall 2012, p 110-123.
  • The final form of love: the science of forgiveness and the openness of God. Creation made free: open theology engaging science, Eugene, Or : Pickwick Pub, 2009 p195-218.
  • “Trinity, Temporality, and Open Theism,” Philosophia 35 (2007), 321-328. Reprinted in Diller, Jeanine ed. Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities (Springer, 2013), 299-307.

Reimer, David J. “An Overlooked Term in Old Testament Theology—Perhaps,” eds. A. D. H. Mayes and R. B. Salters, Covenant and Context: Essays in Honour of E. W. Nicholson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003),

Rhoda, Alan.

  • Most of his work is available at:
  • “Open Theism and Other Models of Divine Providence,” in Diller, Jeanine ed. Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities (Springer, 2013), 287-298.
  • “The Fivefold Openness of the Future.” In William Hasker, Thomas Oord, and Dean Zimmerman eds. God in an Open Universe: Science, Metaphysics, and       Open Theism (Pickwick, 2011).
  • “Gratuitous Evil and Divine Providence,” Religious Studies, 46(3), 281-302, September 2010.
  • “Probability, Truth, and the Openness of the Future: A Reply to Pruss.” Faith and Philosophy, 27(2), 197-204, 8 p. April 2010.
  • “Presentism, Truthmakers, and God.” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 90(1), 41-62, March 2009.
  • Beyond the Chessmaster Analogy: Game Theory and Divine Providence, in Thomas Jay Oord (ed.), Creation Made Free: Open Theology Engaging Science (Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2009).
  • “Generic Open Theism and Some Varieties Thereof,” Religious Studies, 44.2 (May, 2008).
  • “The Philosophical Case for Open Theism.” Philosophia, 35(3-4), 301-311,              September-December 2007.
  • Open Theism, Omnisciece and the nature of the Future. Faith and Philosophy 23 (2006): 432–459.

Rhoda, Alan Greg Boyd and Thomas Belt “Open Theism, Omniscience, and the Nature of the Future” Faith and Philosophy, (2007)

Thomas Renz, “Proclaming the Future: History and Theology in Prophecies Against Tyre,” Tyndale Bulletin 51 (2000): 17-58

Saia, Michael R.

  • Does God Know the Future? A Biblical Investigation of Foreknowledge and Free Will. Fairfax, VA Xulon Press, 2002.
  • Why do the Innocent Suffer? Xulon Press, 2014
  • Why Pray? Xulon Press, 2014

Sanders, John.

  • “Sanders in Dialogue with Muslim Responses to Open Theism.” Divine Action: Challenges for Muslim and Christian Theology. Sanders and Von Stosch eds. (Brill, 2021). Pp. 65-76.
  • “Providence in Light of an Open God and an Open Future.” Divine Action: Challenges for Muslim and Christian Theology. Sanders and Von Stosch eds. (Brill, 2021). Pp. 3-18.
  • “Open Theism.” The Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Religion (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020).
  • “God, Evil, and Relational Risk” in Michael Peterson ed., The Problem of Evil: Selected Readings, second edition (University of Notre Dame Press, 2017). Pp. 327-343
  • “Why Oord’s Essential Kenosis Model Fails to Solve the Problem of Evil While Retaining Miracles.” Wesleyan Theological Journal 51 no. 2 (Fall, 2016): 174-187.
  • “Open Theism.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online, 2013.
  • “Divine Reciprocity and Epistemic Openness in Clark Pinnock’s Theology,” The Other Journal: the Church and Postmodernity (January 2012).
  • “Open Theistic Perspectives—The Freedom of Creation” in Ernst Conradie ed., Creation and Salvation: Essays on Recent Theological Movements. LIT Verlag, Berlin, 2012.
  • “Open Creation and the Redemption of the Environment,” Wesleyan Theological Journal, Spring 2012.
  • “The Eternal Now and Theological Suicide: A Reply to Laurence Wood,” Wesleyan Theological Journal 2 (Fall, 2010): 67-81.
  • “Theological Muscle-Flexing: How Human Embodiment Shapes Discourse About God,” in Thomas Jay Oord ed., Creation Made Free: Open Theology Engaging Science (Pickwick Publications, 2009).
  • “Divine Providence and the Openness of God” in Bruce Ware ed., Perspectives on the Doctrine of God: 4 Views. Broadman & Holman. Nashville, 2008.
  • “Divine Suffering in Open Theism” in D. Steven Long ed., The Sovereignty of God Debate (Wipf and Stock Publishing, 2008).
  • The God Who Risks: A Theology of Providence.  Revised edition, IVP, 2007.
  • “How Do We Decide What God is Like?”  in And God saw that it was good: Essays on Creation and God in Honor of Terence E. Fretheim, ed. Fred Gaiser, (Word and World supplement, series 5, January 2006), 154-162.
  • “Response to the Stone Campbell Movement and Open Theism,” in Evangelicalism and the Stone-Campbell Movement, Vol. 2, ed. William Baker (Abilene Christian University Press, 2006).
  • With Chris Hall, Does God have a Future? A Debate on Divine Providence. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2003.
  • “On Heffalumps and Heresies: Responses to Accusations Against Open Theism” Journal of Biblical Studies 2, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 1-44.
  • “Historical Considerations” and “Introduction” in The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God.  IVP, 1994.
  • “On Reducing God to Human Proportions” in Semper Reformandum: Studies in Honour of Clark Pinnock, eds. Anthony Cross and Stanley Porter (Paternoster, U.K. and Eerdmans, U.S. 2003).
  • “Why Simple Foreknowledge Offers No More Providential Control than the Openness of God,” Faith and Philosophy 14, no. 1 (Jan. 1997): 26-40.
  • “Is Open Theism a Radical Revision or Miniscule Modification of Arminianism?” Wesleyan Theological Journal (Fall 2003).
  • “The Assurance of Things to Come” in Looking to the Future, ed. David Baker, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 2001.
  • “Be Wary of Ware: A Reply to Bruce Ware” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (June 2002): 221-231.
  • “A Tale of Two Providences.”  Ashland Theological Journal 33 (2001): 41-55.
  • With Chris Hall, “Does God know your Next Move?” Christianity Today, May 21, 2001,  pp. 38-45 and June 7, 2001, pp. 50-56.
  • “Truth at Risk,” Christianity Today, April 23, 2001, p. 103.
  • “Theological Lawbreaker?” Books and Culture (January, 2000) pp.10-11. Reprinted in Daniel Judd, ed. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Religion. McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Sanders, John and J. Aaron Simmons. “A Goldilocks God: Open Theism as a Feuerbachian Alternative?” Element 6, no. 2 (fall 2015): 35-55.

Sanders, John and William Hasker. “Open Theism: Progress and Prospects.” Theologische Literaturzeitung 142/9 (2017)” 859-872.

Schmelter, Denis. Gottes Handeln und die Risikologik der Liebe: Zur rationalen Vertretbarkeit des Glaubens an Bittgebetserhörungen (Gebundene Ausgabe, 2012). [Roman Catholic]

Simmons, J. Aaron and John Sanders. “A Goldilocks God: Open Theism as a Feuerbachian Alternative?” Element 6, no. 2 (fall 2015): 35-53.

Sirvent,  Roberto.  Embracing Vulnerability: Human and Divine, (Pickwick, 2014)

Sontag, Frederick. “Does Omnipotence Necessarily Entail Omniscience?” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34 (1991): 505-8.

Studebaker, Steven M. “The Mode of Divine Knowledge in Reformation Arminianism and Open Theism,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 47.3 (September, 2004): 469-480

  • “Integrating Pneumatology and Christology: A Trinitarian Modification of Clark H. Pinnock’s Spirit Christology”, Pneuma, 28:1, 2006, pp. 5-20.

Swinburne, Richard. The Coherence of Theism. Revised Edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Tuggy, Dale. “Three Roads to Open Theism,” Faith & Philosophy (2006).

Tupper, E Frank. The self-limitation of God. Perspectives in Religious Studies, 34 no 2 Sum 2007, p 161-191.

Udd, Kris.

  • “Only the Father Knows: A Response to Harold F. Carl,” Journal of Biblical Studies []. 1.4 (Oct-Dec 2001):
  • “Prediction and Foreknowledge in Ezekiel’s Prophecy Against Tyre,” Tyndale Bulletin 56.1 (2005): 25-41.

Van Inwagen, Peter.

  • “What Does an Omniscient Being Know About the Future?” in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion (2008): 216-230.
  • “The Place of Chance in a World Sustained by God.” Ed. Thomas   Morris. Divine and Human Action: Essays in the Metaphysics of Theism. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988)

Viney, Donald Wayne.

  • Jules Lequyer and the Openness of God.” Faith and Philosophy, 14 Ap 1997, p 212-235
  • “The Varieties of Theism and the Openness of God: Charles Hartshorne and Free-Will Theism.” Personalist Forum, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 199-238, Fall 1998.

Wagner, C. Peter. Dominion! How Kingdom Acton can Change the World. Chosen Books, 2008.

Ward, Keith

  • “Cosmos and Kenosis,” John Polkinghorne ed. The Work of Love: Creation as Kenosis, (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2001
  • “The Temporality of God,” International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 50 (Dec. 2001): 153-169.
  • Religion and Creation (Oxford, 1996) pages 275-277.

Widmer, Michael. Moses, God and the Dynamics of Intercessory Prayer: A Study of Exodus 32-34 & Numbers 13-14. Forschungen Zum Alten Testament (Mohr Siebeck, 2004).

White, C. Jason. “Why It is Ok for Classical Arminians in the Wesleyan Tradition to be Open Theists.” Wesleyan Theological Journal, 55, no. 2 (2018): 144-164

  • “An Accommodating and Shunning Culture: Evaluating the Cultural Context of the Evangelical Theological Society in the United States.” Scottish Journal of Theology 65, no. 2 (2012): 192-2011.

Witham, Larry. The God Biographers: Our Changing Image of God from Job to the Present (Lexington Press, 2010). Provides a history of the debate in evangelicalism.

Woodruff, David.

  • “Being and Doing in the Concept of God.” Philosophia 35 (3-4), 313-320.  September-December 2007.
  • “Examining Problems and Assumptions: An Update on Criticisms of Open Theism.” Dialogue, 47.1 (2008): 53-63.
  • Presentism and the problem of special relativity. God in an open universe: science, metaphysics, and open theism, Eugene, Or : Pickwick, 2011 p94-124.

Woterstorff, Nicholas. “Unqualified Divine Temporality” in Gregory Ganssle ed. God & Time: Four Views (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2001.

Yong, Amos. ‘Divine Omniscience and Future Contingencies: Weighing the Presuppositional Issues in the Contemporary Debate.’ Evangelical Review of Theology 26/3 (July 2002):240-264.

Yerxa, Donald A. “A Meaningful Past and the Limits of History: Some Reflections Informed by the Science-and-Religion Dialogue.” Fides et Historia, 34.1 2002: 13-30.

Zimmerman, Dean.

3. Works engaging open theism:

Christianity Today, 1995, Vol. 39 Issue 1 contains reviews by Roger Olson, Doug Kelly, Alister McGrath and Tom Oden of the book, The Openness of God.

Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45/2 (June 2002): the entire issue.

Master’s Seminary Journal, 12 no 2 Fall 2001, entire issue.

Anderson, Mark B. Monism, open theism, and soteriological luck. Religious Studies, 47 no 3 Sep 2011, p 371-381

Asghar-Zadeh, Darius. “Divine Action and Future Knowledge: Islamic Philosophical Theology in Discussion with Christian Open Theism.”  In Klaus Von Stosch and John Sanders editors, Divine Action: Challenges for Muslim and Christian Theology. Brill 2021

Bayam, Emine Gören. Doctoral dissertation 2016. (In Turkish). Acık Teizm Baglaminda Tanri’nin Onbilgisi ve Insan Hurriyeti (God’s Foreknowledge and Human Freedom in the context of Open Theism). Istanbul University, Turkey.

_______.“AÇIK TEİZME GÖRE TANRI’NIN HER ŞEYİ BİLMESİ MESELESİ.” SBArD,  Issue 27/( Spring 2016): 195 – 208.


Biersack, Robert. Bittgebet und Gottes Vorsehung: Eine systematisch-theologische Studie zur Sinnhaftigkeit und Wirksamkeit der Bitte an Gott, Pallottinische Studien zu Kirche und Welt (Verlag, 2016). Roman Catholic priest who is appreciative and fair. He compares the openness model to Thomism and Stump’s Thomistic views. Affirms Stump’s position.

Blair, Anthony L. Newton’s world no more: Einstein, open theism, and the contours of    biblical cosmology. Evangelical Journal, 25 no 2 Fall 2007, p 73-87.

Bouma-Prediger, Celaine. “Toward a Reformed Theology of Prayer and Spiritual Direction: A Response to John Sanders. Reformed Review, vol 60, no. 2 (Spring          2007),

Boyd, Gregory & Paul R Eddy. Across the spectrum: understanding issues in evangelical  theology. Baker Academic, 2002.

Callen, Barry L. Soteriological synergism and its surrounding seductions. Wesleyan Theological Journal, 46 no 2 Fall 2011, p 25-40.

Campbell, Iain D. “Open Thoughts on Open Theism.” Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology, 21 no 1 Spr 2003, p 34-56

Canale, Fernando. “Evangelical theology and open theism: toward a biblical  understanding of the macro hermeneutical principles of theology?”  Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 12 no 2 (2001): 16-34.

Clark, Kelly James. A tale of two deities. American Theological Inquiry, 1 no 2 Jul 15  2008, p 8-25.

Colijn, Brenda B. Open theism: framing the discussion. Ashland Theological Journal, 34   2002, p 55-65.

Cottrell, Jack. “Understanding God: God and Time” in Evangelicalism and the Stone- Campbell Movement, Vol. 2, ed. William Baker (Abilene Christian University Press, 2006).

Crampton, W Gary. An analysis of open theism. The Confessional Presbyterian, 2 2006,  p 61-70, 255.

Davis, Stephen T. On preferring that God not exist (or that God exist): a dialogue. Faith and Philosophy, 31 no 2 Apr 2014, p 143-159.

Dorrien, Gary. The Remaking of Evangelical Theology (Westminster John Knox, 1998).

Ellington, Scott A. Who shall lead them out?: An exploration of God’s openness in  Exodus 32.7-14. Journal of Pentecostal Theology, 14 no 1 Oct 2005, p 41-60.

Enxing, Julia. Gott im Werden. Die Prozesstheologie Charles Hartshornes (Friedrich Pustet: Regensburg, 2013). [Final chapter compares God Who Risks with process theology]

Fackre, Gabriel “An evangelical megashift? The promise and peril of an `open’ view of    God.Christian Century, 5/3/95, Vol. 112 Issue 15, p484, 4p

Frame, Tom. The prospects, possibilities and problems of open theism. St Mark’s  Review, 215 Feb 2011, p 102-107.

Grössl, Johannes. Gott als Liebe denken: Anliegen und Optionen des Offenen Theismus. Neue Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie, 54 no 4 2012, p 469-488.

Hammett, John S. Divine foreknowledge and open theism. Faith and Mission, 21 no 1   Fall 2003, p 18-31.

Hicks, John Mark. “Was Arminius and Open Theist? Meticulous Providence in the Theology of Jacob Arminius” in Reconsidering Arminius: Beyond the Reformed and Wesleyan Divide. Eds.: Keith Stanglin et. al. Kingswood Books. 2014.

Hilborn, David. Principled unity or pragmatic compromise?: the challenge of pan- Evangelical theology. Evangel, 22 no 3 Aut 2004, p 80-91.

Jacobson, Carol R. “Will God save the world or not?: prolepsis, open theism, and the world’s future.” Currents in Theology and Mission, 39 no 4 Aug 2012, p 290-296.

Kartaiev, Volodymyr. “Cognitive Linguistics, Conceptual Metaphors and Implemented Hermeneutics of John Sanders.” Journal of  Scientific Oglyad No. 1(64), 2020 [Ukranian]

______“Open Theism: A Critical Analysis.” Doctoral dissertation,   National Pedagogical Dragomanov University. Kyiv, 2020.

Keepers, Brian. “My Only Comfort in Life and in Death: A Pastoral Response to Open Theism.” Reformed Review, vol 60, no. 2 (Spring 2007),

Lamerson, Samuel. The openness of God and the historical Jesus. American Theological Inquiry, 1 no 1 Jan 15 2008, p 25-37.

Lessing, Reed. ‘Pastor, does God really respond to my prayers?’ Concordia Journal, 32     no 3 Jul 2006, p 256-273.

Mahdavi Mehr, Vahid. “The Question of Anthropomorphism in Transcendental and Open Theology” in Klaus Von Stosch and John Sanders editors, Divine Action: Challenges for Muslim and Christian Theology. Brill 2021

McGregor, Stu. Open theism’s doctrine of God: a review of five books. Stimulus, 13 no 2           May 2005, p 19-24.

________. Holy moley!: Open theism attacks the atonement! The headline that ruined my  confidence in American evangelicalism. Stimulus, 12 no 4 Nov 2004, p 37-42.

Migliorini , Damiano. “From the incompatibility of Pike to the Open Theism: the debate on divine omniscience in the analytic philosophy of religion” Rivista di Filosofia 105 (2014), pp. 273-288.

Mirsadri, Sayyeda Saida, and Mansour Nasiri. “Openness and Bada’according to the Open Theistic View and the Shi’a Theology; A Comparative Study.” Jostarha-ye Falsafe-ye Din 7.2 (2018): 129-149. [Iran. Persian.]

Moret, Ross. Beyond sola scriptura: placing open theism within American cultural trends. Stone-Campbell Journal, 10 no 2 Fall 2007, p 213-229.

Nichols, Stephen J. An early response to open theism. Edward Taylor’s Gods determinations, and the Puritan view of history. Reformation & Revival, 12 no 2      Spr 2003, p 111-129.

Paulsen, David L. Reply to Professor Pinnock. Mormonism in dialogue with  contemporary Christian theologies, Macon, Ga : Mercer Univ Pr, 2007 p545-553.

Paulsen, David and Spencer Noorlander. “A Critique of the Openness Case for Creation ex Nihilo.” Element 6.2 (Fall 2015): 55-73.

Penner, Myron A. Personal Anti-Theism and the Meaningful Life Argument. Faith and    Philosophy, 32 no 3 Jul 2015, p 325-337.

Peterson, Michael L. Eschatology and theodicy. The Oxford handbook of eschatology,      New York : Oxford Univ Pr, 2008 p518-533.

Reichenbach, Bruce. Divine Providence: God’s Love and Human Freedom (Cascade, 2016).

Richie, Tony Lee. Thinking through the new theism: a pastoral perspective. The Asbury Theological Journal, 60 no 2 Fall 2005, p 111-121

Rissler, James D. Open theism: does God risk or hope? Religious Studies, 42 no 1 Mar     2006, p 63-74.

Robinson, Michael. The Storms of Providence: Navigating the Waters of Calvinism,         Arminianism and Open Theism. (University Press of America, 2004).

Russell, Robert John. Hummingbirds make stars possible: exploring and celebrating         Ted’s ‘retroactive ontology’. Currents in Theology and Mission, 39 no 4 Aug 2012, p 312-315.

Sánchez, Leopoldo A. Praying to God the father in the spirit: reclaiming the church’s        participation in the son’s prayer life. Concordia Journal, 32 no 3 Jul 2006, p 274-         295.

Tiessen, David Alstad. “The openness model of God: an Evangelical paradigm in light of             its nineteenth century Wesleyan precedent.” Didaskalia (Otterburne, Man.), 11 no     2 Spr 2000, p 77-101

Truesdale, Al God Reconsidered: The Promise and Peril of Process Theology (Beacon      Hill, 2010).

Tweedt, Chris. Defusing the Common Sense Problem of Evil. Faith and Philosophy, 32   no 4 Oct 2015, p 391-403.

Warden, Duane. “Open Theism and Churches of Christ (a cappella)” in Evangelicalism    and the Stone-Campbell Movement, Vol. 2, ed. William Baker (Abilene Christian             University Press, 2006).

________. “Openness of God,” Restoration Quarterly, 46 no 2 2004, p 65-78

Wilson, Andrew. Significance of Reverend Sun Myung Moon for Christianity. Journal of            Unification Studies, 15 2014, p 1-25.

Yerxa, Donald A. “A Meaningful Past and the Limits of History: Some Reflections           Informed by the Science-and-Religion Dialogue,” Fides et Historia, 34.1      Winter/spring 2002: 13-30.

Yöney, Ferhat. “An Examination of the Biblical Evidence for Open Theism.” Hethrop Journal (2019): 1-14

Zbaraschuk, Michael. Process theology resources for an open and relational Christology. Wesleyan Theological Journal, 44 no 2 Fall 2009, p 154-167.

4.Works Against Open Theism:

Arbor, Benjamin. Philosophical Essays Against Open Theism. Routledge, 2018.

Arbour, Benjamin and Douglas Blount. “The Camel’s Nose: Open Theism and Biblical    Interpretation.” Bibliotheca Sacra 171, no. 163 (2014): 274-288.

Arbour, Benjamin H. Future freedom and the fixity of truth: closing the road to limited             foreknowledge open theism. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 73           no 3 Jun 2013, p 189-207.

Bawulski, Shawn; Watkins, James. Possible worlds and God’s creative process: how a      classical doctrine of divine creation can understand divine creativity. Scottish     Journal of Theology, 65 no 2 2012, p 174-191

Beckman, John C. “Quantum Mechanics, Chaos Physics and the Open View of God.”      Philosophia Christi, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 203-213.

Bloesch, Donald. God the Almighty: Power, Wisdom, Holiness, Love. (IVP, 1995)

Blount, Douglas K. Togas, tulips and the philosophy of openness. Southwestern Journal   of Theology, 47 no 2 Spr 2005, p 177-189.

Bray, Gerald. The Personal God. Patternoster, 1999.

Bush, L Russ. Open theism: good try, but no dice. Faith and Mission, 21 no 2 Spr 2004, p 17-29.

Caneday, A B, “Critical comments on an open theism manifesto”  Trinity Journal, ns 23   no 1 Spr 2002, p 103-107

________. “Putting God at Risk: a Critical Analysis of John Sanders’ The God Who         Risks.” 1999. Trinity Journal, ns 20 no 2 Fall 1999, p 131-163

Ciocchi, David. “The Religious Adequacy of Free-will Theism,” Religious Studies 38       (2002): 45-61.

Cole, Graham A. “The Living God: Anthropomorphic of Anthropopathic?” Reformed       Theological Review, 59 no 1 Ap 2000, p 16-27.

Cuthbertson, Mark Russell. Time, the open acquittal,’ and divine omniscience: two          internal problems with open theism. Westminster Theological Journal, 67 no 1         Spr 2005, p 75-83.

Charles, J Daryl. The language of providence in 2 Peter: some considerations for the         ‘open theism’ debate. Presbyterion, 29 no 2 Fall 2003, p 85-93.

Craig, William Lane; Hunt, David P. Perils of the open road. Faith and Philosophy, 30 no            1 Jan 2013, p 49-71.

Davis, William. “Does God Know the Future?”  Modern Reformation  8/5 (September,     1999) 20-27.

Erickson, Millard. God the Father Almighty. Baker, 1998.

________. What Does God Know and When Does He Know It? Zondervan, 2003

Feinberg, John. The One True God. Crossway Books, 2001

Flint, Thomas. Divine Providence: The Molinist Account. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

________. Risky business: open theism and the incarnation. Philosophia Christi, 6 no 2 2004, p 213-233.

Frame, John.  No Other God: A Response to Open Theism. Presbyterian and Reformed,    2001.

Geivett, R Douglas. Divine providence and the openness of God: a response to William    Hasker.  Philosophia Christi, 4 no 2 2002, p 377-396.

George, Timothy. “What God Knows.”. First Things (June-July 2003): 7-9

Geisler, Norman and House, Wayne. The Battle for God. Kregel 2001.

Geisler, Norman. Creating God in the Image of Man? Bethany, 1997.

Hanson, Doug. A critique of open theist’s atonement views within the context of mission theology. Melanesian Journal of Theology, 24 no 2 2008, p 5-81.

Helm, Paul. “God’s Providence Takes No Risks” in Michael Peterson ed., The Problem of Evil: Selected Readings. University of Notre Dame Press, 2017. Pp. 344-362.

_______ The Providence of God. InterVarsity Press, 1994.

Helseth, Paul Kjoss. ‘On Divine Ambivalence: Open Theism and the Problem of   Particular Evils.’ Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44/3 (2001):     493-511.

_______. Neo-molinism: a traditional-openness rapprochement? The Southern Baptist      Journal of Theology, 7 no 3 Fall 2003, p 56-73.

Hesselink, I. John. “A Response to John Sanders on Providence: Your God is Too             Small.” Reformed Review, vol 60, no. 2 (Spring 2007),

Hicks, John Mark. Classic Arminianism and open theism: a substantial difference in        their theologies of providence. Trinity Journal, ns 33 no 1 Spr 2012, p 3-18.

Highfield, Ron. ‘The Function of Divine Self-Limitation in Open Theism: Great Wall or Picket Fence?’ Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45/2 (June 2002).

_______. Great is the Lord (Eerdmans, 2008)

_______. “The Problem with the ‘Problem of Evil’: A Response to Gregory Boyd’s Open Theists Solution,” Restoration Quarterly 45 (2003): 175-76,

________. Does the world limit God?: assessing the case for open theism. Stone-Campbell Journal, 5 no 1 Spr 2002, p 69-92.

Horton, Michael. “Hellenistic or Hebrew? Open Theism and Reformed Theological          Method.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 45.2 (June 2002): 317-            342

________. “Is the New News Good News? Modern Reformation  8/5 (September,             1999) 11-19.

Huffman, Douglas S. Some logical difficulties in open theism. Criswell Theological       Review, ns 1 no 2 Spr 2004, p 173-189.

Huffman, Douglas and Johnson, Eric. eds. God Under Fire. Grand Rapids, MI:     Zondervan, 2002.

Hunt, David P. “The Providential Advantage of Divine Foreknowledge” in Kevin Timpe,             ed. Arguing About Religion (Routledge, 2009).

Kurka, Robert. “Open Theism and Christian Churches (Independent)” in Evangelicalism and the Stone-Campbell Movement, Vol. 2, ed. William Baker (Abilene Christian             University Press, 2006).

_______. God, open theism, and the Stone-Campbell movement. Stone-Campbell Journal, 6 no 1 Spr 2003, p 27-52.

Lamerson, Samuel. “The openness of God and the historical JesusAmerican        Theological Inquiry, 1 no 1 Ja 15 2008, p 25-37

Luter, Boyd; McGowin, Emily Hunter. From bad to worse: a portrait of open theism as a            theological system. Criswell Theological Review, ns 1 no 2 Spr 2004, p 147-165.

MacArthur, John. Open theism’s attack on the atonementMaster’s Seminary Journal, 12             no 1 Spr 2001, p 3-13.

MacGregor, Kirk R. “The Neo-Molinist Square Collapses: A Molinist Response to Elijah  Hess,” Philosophia Christi 18 (2016): 195-206

Maier, Walter A. Does God ‘repent’ or change his mind? Concordia Theological    Quarterly, 68 no 2 Apr 2004, p 127-143.

Master, Jonathan. “Exodus 32 as an Argument for Traditional Theism,” Journal of the      Evangelical Theological Society 45.4 (2002), pp. 585-598.

Mawson, Tim. Divine Eternity. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 64 no 1             Aug 2008, p 35-50.

McCormack, Bruce, “The Actuality of God: Karl Barth in Conversation with Open           Theism,” in McCormack ed. Engaging the Doctrine of God (Baker, 2008).

McGowin, Emily Hunter. A response to Clark H. Pinnock. Criswell Theological Review, ns 1 no 2 Spr 2004, p 171-172.

Middelmann, Udo. The Innocence of God (Paternoster, 2007).

Mihaila, Corin. The ignorant God of open theism. Faith and Mission, 19 no 3 Sum 2002,           p 26-47.

Mordomo, Joao.”Missiological Misgivings about the Openness of God Theology.”            Patrick Henry College, Global Journal of Classical Theology, 3.2 (Nov. 2002).

Mohler, Albert. “The Eclipse of God at Century’s End” Southern Baptist Journal of          Theology, 1.1. (Spring, 1997) 6-15.

Murphy, Ganon. Consuming Glory: A Classical Defense of Divine-Human Relationality   Against Open Theism (Wipf & Stock, 2006)

Picirilli, Robert. “An Arminian Response to John Sanders’s The God Who Risks: A          Theology of Providence.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 44/2 (September 2001): 467-491.

________. “Foreknowledge, Freedom, and the Future.” Journal of the Evangelical            Theological Society, 43/2 (June 2000): 259-271.

Piper, John. ed. Beyond the Bounds: Open Theism and the Undermining of Biblical           Christianity. Chicago: Crossway, 2003.

Pretorius, Mark. An epigrammatic analysis on open theism and its impact on classical     Christianity.  HTS, 69 no 1 2013.

Pyne, Robert and Spencer, Stephen. “A Critique of Free-Will Theism.”, in two parts         Bibliotheca Sacra 158 (July 2001): 259-286 and (October 2001):

Quarles, Charles L. Was Jesus an open theist?: A brief examination of Greg Boyd’s          exegesis of Jesus’ prayer in Gethsemane. The Southern Baptist Journal of        Theology, 8 no 3 Fall 2004, p 102-111.

Richards, Jay Wesley. The Untamed God: A Philosophical Exploration of Divine Perfection, Immutability and Simplicity, IVP 2003

Richardson, Kurt A. God’s self-conditioned relations according to Karl Barth.        Perspectives in Religious Studies, 34 no 2 Sum 2007, p 215-225.

Robinson, Jason. “Freewill Theism: Doing Business in a Free-Market Society.” Theology             Today 62 (2006): 165-175.

Robinson, Michael. “Why Divine Foreknowledge?” Religious Studies 36: 251-275.

Rogers, Katherin A. Anselmian eternalism: the presence of a timeless God. Faith and       Philosophy, 24 no 1 Jan 2007, p 3-27.

Roy, Steven. “God as Omnicompetent Responder? Questions about the Grounds of           Eschatological Confidence in Open Theism” Looking Into the Future, ed. David    W. Baker (Baker Academic, 2001): 263-280.

______. How Much Does God Foreknow? IVP, 2006.

Schreiner, Thomas and Ware, Bruce. eds. The Grace of God, the Bondage of the Will,       Baker, 1999.

Smith, James K A. What God knows: the debate on ‘open theism’. The Christian Century, 122 no 14 Jul 12 2005, p 30-32.

Stallard, Michael D. A dispensational critique of open theism’s view of prophecy.          Bibliotheca sacra, 161 no 641 Jan – Mar 2004, p 27-41.

Storms, C Samuel. Prayer and the power of contrary choice: who can and cannot pray for             God to save the lost? Reformation & Revival, 12 no 2 Spr 2003, p 53-67

Thompson, Matthew K. “Does God Have a Future? A Pentecostal Response to          Christopher Hall’s and John Sanders Recent Book.”  Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies; Spring2004, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p130, 8p

Tiessen, Terrence. Providence and Prayer: How Does God Work in the World?     (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2000)

_______. Can God be responsive if the future is not open? Didaskalia (Otterburne,           Man.), 18 no 1 Wint 2007, p 121-139.

________. God, time and knowledge: what does God know and when does he know it?    Didaskalia (Otterburne, Man.), 18 no 1 Wint 2007, p 141-163.

_______. Does Yahweh take risks? Didaskalia (Otterburne, Man.), 18 no 1 Wint 2007, p 97-120.

Tracy, Steven. “Theodicy, Eschatology, and the Open View of God” Looking Into the       Future, ed. David W. Baker (Baker Academic, 2001): 295-312.

Vicens, Leigh Christiana; Grössl, Johannes. “Closing the Door on Limited-Risk Open       Theism.” Faith and Philosophy, 31 no 4 Oct 2014, p 475-485

Ware, Bruce. God’s Lesser Glory. Crossway Books, 2000.

________. “Despair amidst suffering and pain: a practical outworking of open theism’s     diminished view of God.” Southern Baptist Journal of Theology, 4 no 2 Sum     2000, p 56-75.

_______. Ware, Bruce. Their God is Too Small: Open Theism and the Undermining of     Confidence in God (crossway, 2003).

______. God’s Greater Glory (Crossway, 2004).

Ware, Bruce A. Robots, royalty, and relationships?: toward a clarified understanding of    real human relations with the God who knows and decrees all that is. Criswell     Theological Review, ns 1 no 2 Spr 2004, p 191-203.

Webster, Loring C. The End from the Beginning; Or, Divine Prescience vrs. Divine          Nescience of Future Contingencies. Cincinnati: Cranston & Curts, 1895.

Wellum, Stephen. “Divine Sovereignty-Omniscience, Inerrancy, and Open Theism” JETS            45/2  (June 2002): 257-278.

Werther, David. Open theism and middle knowledge: an appraisal of Gregory Boyd’s                  neo-Molinism. Philosophia Christi, 5 no 1 2003, p 205-215.

Wicks, Marshall. Is it time to change?: open theism and the divine timelessness debate.   The Master’s Seminary Journal, 18 no 1 Spr 2007, p 43-68

Williams, Stephen N. “More on Open Theism” Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology             22 (2004): 32-50.

_______. “What God Doesn’t Know,” Books & Culture, November/December 1999. vol.             5, no 6, p.16.

_______. Observations on the future of system. Always reforming: explorations in systematic theology, Downers Grove, Ill : InterVarsity Pr, 2006 p41-66.

Wilson, Douglas (Editor). Bound only once: the failure of open theism. Moscow, Idaho:             Canon Pr, 2001.

Wood, Laurence. “Divine Omniscience: Boethius or ‘Open Theism?’” Wesleyan   Theological Journal 45/2 (Fall 2010): 41-66.

________. “Does God Know the Future? Can God be Mistaken?: A Reply to Richard       Swinburne.” Asbury Theological Journal 56 (Fall 2001): 5-47.

Wright, R. K. McGregor. No Place for Sovereignty., IVP, 1996.

Yuille, Steven. “How Pastoral is Open Theism? A Critique from the Writings of George   Swinnock and Steven Charnock.” Themelios 32/2 (Jan. 2007): 46-61.

Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses:

Doctoral Dissertations:

  1. Elijah Hess. 2019. A Philosophical Investigation into Perfect Being Open Futurism. University of Arkansas.
  2. Ben Arbour. 2019.  Perfection and Open Theism. University of Bristol.
  3. Allan, Richard. 2018. Open Theism and Pentecostalism: A Comparative Study of the Godhead, Soteriology, Eschatology, and Providence. Birmingham University (UK).
  4. Schmid, Manuel. 2017. Der Offene Theismus als Bibeltheologische Reformbewegung. University of Basel (Switerland).
  5. White, Jason.  2016. The Literal vs. the Metaphorical: A Description, Critique, and Clarification of Classical and Open Theist Methodologies within Conservative Evangelicalism. Doctoral dissertation McMaster University in Toronto.
  6. Robert Biersack. 2016 Bittgebet und Gottes Vorsehung: Eine systematisch-theologische Studie zur Sinnhaftigkeit und Wirksamkeit der Bitte an Gott. Otto Friedrisch University, Bamberg, Germany. (now published).
  7. Bayam, Emine Gören. 2016. (In Turkish) Human Freedom and God in the Context of Open Theism. Istanbul University, Turkey.
  8. Sirvent, Roberto. 2013. “Imitatio Dei and Divine Vulnerability: A Moral Case for the Vulnerable God.” PhD dissertation, London School of Theology [Published, see above]
  9. Park, Dong Sik. 2012. The God-World Relation Between Joseph Bracken, Phillip Clayton, and Open Theism. Claremont Graduate School.
  10. Enxing, Julia. 2012. Der Bewegte Beweger. Das Gotteskonzept Charles Hartshornes unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Hartshorne-Brightman-Korrespondenz. Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster.  [published see above]
  11. Baker, Vaughn. 2011. Evangelism and the Openness of God: The Implications of Relational Theism for Evangelism and Missions. University of South Africa. [published see above]
  12. Yang, Joseph Xiao. From Narrative to Doctrine: A Critical Examination of the Use of Scripture in the Open Theism Debate. Trinity International University, 2010.
  13. Olsen, Peter Flemming. 2009.Open Theism on Providence and Theodicy: An Arminianized Evangelicalism (Publications from the Faculty of Theology 10) Copenhagen: Copenhagen University.
  14. Holtzen, William Curtis. 2007. Dei Fide: A Relational Theology of the Faith of God. University of South Africa.
  15. Ham, T. C. Relational Metaphors and Omniscience in the Hebrew Bible (PhD, Dallas Theological Seminary, 2007).
  16. Holland, Richard. God and Time: Rethinking the Relationship in Light of the Incarnation of Christ (PhD, Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, Wake Forest, 2007).
  17. Ostrom, William Bruce. Divine Sovereignty and the Religious Problem of Evil: An Evaluation of Evangelical Models (PhD, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2007).
  18. Rissler, James D. Divine providence and human libertarian freedom: Reasons for incompatibility and theological alternatives. University of Notre Dame, 2006, 322 pages.
  19. Calvert, Michael. Paradox Lost: Open Theism and the Deconstruction of Divine Incomprehensibility—A Critical Analysis (PhD, Trinity Theological Seminary, 2005).
  20. Harmon, Jerry. Exodus 24.6-7: A Hermeneutical Key in the Open Theism Debate (PhD, Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary, 2005).
  21. Moore, Scott.  The Problem of Prayer (PhD, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2006).
  22. Campbell, Travis. The Beautiful Mind: A Reaffirmation and Reconstruction of the Classical Reformed Doctrines of the Divine Omniscience, Prescience, and Human Freedom. Westminster Theological Seminary (2004).
  23. Gilbert, Kevin James. The rule of express terms and the limits of fellowship in the Stone-Campbell movement: T. W. Brents, a test case. The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2004.
  24. Robinson, Franklin Webster. Adversity, crisis counseling, and the openness of God: An evaluation of open theism for pastoral response to victims of violence. Azusa Pacific University, 2002.
  25. Kersey, Kent Allen The freedom of God and man: A critical analysis of the relationship between providence and anthropology in Open Theism. Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary,
  26. Ladd, Steven Willis Theological indicators supporting an evangelical conception of eternity: A study of God’s relation to time in light of the doctrine of creation ex nihilo. Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2002.
  27. Steven Roy, How Much Does God Foreknow? An Evangelical Assessment of the Doctrine of the Extent of the Foreknowledge of God in Light of the Teaching of Open Theism, Trinity International University, 2000. Now published.
  28. Tae Soo Park, A Biblical Response to Open Theism: Christology in the Four Gospels. Bob Jones University 2004.

Masters Theses:

  1. Conn, Jeremy. Developing Doctrinal Criterion for Evaluating Orthodoxy and Heresy: Open Theism as a Test Case. Detroit Baptist Theological Seminary, 2011.
  2. Belt, Thomas G. A Critical Evaluation of the Religious Adequacy of Open Theism: Toward an Open Theistic Theology of Petitionary Prayer. University of Wales, 2007
  3. Manning, John. Does God Suffer? Australian College of Theology, November 2006.
  4. McLaughlin, Ryan Patrick. God of Authentic Rapport: A Tale of MeinIgenes.  Ashland Theological Seminary, August 2006.
  5.  Lim, Joung Bin. A Thomistic Account of Divine Providence and Human Freedom.  Texas A&M University, 2005.
  6. Verhage, Kara Elizabeth. Prayer and a Partially Unsettled Future: A Theological Framework for Prayer From the Perspective of Open Theism Emphasizing Prayers of Supplication. Luther Seminary, 2004.
  7. Thompson, Matthew K., Openness and Perichoresis: An Analysis of Pentecostal Spirituality Toward a Pentecostal Doctrine of God. Saint Paul School of Theology, 2003.
  8. Nichols, Jason. Omniscience in the Divine Openness: A Critical Analysis of Present Knowledge in God.  Trinity International University, 1997.
  9. Jason Brian Santos, Jean Calvin’s classical divine providence juxtaposed with John Sanders’s Risk theology and the pastoral implications of Theodicy. Wheaton College Graduate School, 2002.
  10. Pillai, Jessica D. God’s Change of Mind. Denver Seminary, 2004.
  11. Joseph Holt: Predicating Infinity of God: An Open Theist Perspective.  Bethel Seminary, St. Paul, MN, 2001.
  12. Craig W. Thompson. John Sanders’s Philosophy of Religious Language: an Analysis of Divine Predication in the God Who Risks, Dallas Theological Seminary, 2002.
  13. Jonathan L. Master, Exodus 32 as an Argument for Traditional Theism.  Capitol Bible Seminary, 2002.
  14. Irwin, Ben. The Sovereignty of God and the Biblical Narrative: A Response to Open Theism.  Grand Rapids Theological Seminary, May, 2002.
  15. Dana Arledge,  Does Scripture teach libertarian Freedom? Grand Rapids Baptist Seminary, 2003.

News articles:

  1. Bollag, Burton. “Can God see the future? Some evangelical scholars are taking worldly heat for suggesting that divine knowledge has its limits.”  The Chronicle of Higher Education, Nov 26, 2004 v51 i14 pA11-A14.
  2. Bollag, Burton. “Peer Review,”  Chronicle of Higher Education, 2/18/2005, Vol. 51 Issue 24, pA8, 1/2p, 3c;
  3. “One God, Hold the Omniscience,” Michael Valpy. Toronto Globe and Mail 9/3/2005. F7.
  4.  “Redfining Omniscience.” Bill Broadway; The Washington Post; Nov 8, 2003; pg. B.09
  5.  “2 Escape Expulsion by Evangelical Group” Bill Broadway. The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: Nov 22, 2003. pg. B.09
  6. “Process, Open Theologians Debate” Thomas Oord, Science and Theology News. 4.5 (Jan 2004), pp. 2, 32.
  7. Smith, James. “What God Knows,” Christian Century 7/12/2005, 122.14, p30-33.
  8. College to close out ‘open theism’ scholar.” By: Dart, John. Christian Century, 12/28/2004, Vol. 121 Issue 26, p13, 2/3p,
  9. “Open Theism Scholars Retained,” Christian Century, 12/13/2003, 120.25, p14.
  10.  “Evangelicals in the dock” Leithart, Peter J.  First Things, 141 Mr 2004, p 9-11.
  11. “Cracks in the Ivory Tower,” Allen Guelzo. Books & Culture (Summer, 2005).
  12. “Does God know what you’re thinking now?” Richard N. Ostling, Halifax Daily News   08-03-2003
  13.  “Theological society won’t oust two ‘open theists’” Adelle Banks Religion News Service 12-05-2003
  14. “Society Keeps Open Theists,”  San Antonio Express-News  11-22-2003
  15. “Evangelical theologians reject ‘open theism’” Gorski, Eric The Christian Century 118.34  12-12-2001 p. 10
  16. “Theologians Divided over Free Will,” Eric Gorski, Colorado Springs Gazette 11/24/2001.
  17. “How Much Control Does God Have? Ray Waddle Tennessean   01-20-2001 3B
  18. “Area Religious Colleges Wrestle With Orthodoxy.” Rebecca Green, Fort Wayne Journal Gazette May 21, 2005, Page 1C.
  19.  “Love is the Answer,” Kevin Kilbane. Fort Wayne News Sentinel. 3/5/ 1999,
  20. Open or Closed Case? Controversial theologian John Sanders on way out at Huntington. Stan Guthrie  Christianity Today,  12/22/2004
  21.  “Open to Healing,” Neff, David. Christianity Today, Jan2004, 48.1, p21.
  22. “Closing the Door on Open Theists?” Doug Koop Christianity Today, Jan2003, p24.
  23.  “Foreknowledge Debate Clouded by ‘Political Agenda.’” Neff, David. Christianity Today 11/19/2001
  24.  “God at Risk” By: Zoba, Wendy Murray. Christianity Today, 03/05/2001, 45.4, p56-9.
  25.  “Did Open Debate Help the Openness Debate? Christianity Today, 2/19/2001
  26.  “God vs God” Christianity Today, 2/7/2000
  27.  “Do Good Fences Make Good Baptists? Christianity Today, 8/8/2000